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The amount of carbon that steel contains determines its characteristic. Steel is considered as carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for chromium, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, vanadium or zirconium, or any other elements to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.4%; or when the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65%, silicon 0.6%, copper 0.6%. The majority of the steel produced globally falls into the category of carbon steel. (3) in terms of the deoxidation method, it can be divided into the boiling steel (F), killed steel (Z), semi-killed steel (b), and special killed steel (TZ);

(4) in terms of the carbon content, it is divided into ultra-high carbon steel (1.00 – 2.00%); high carbon steel (0.60 – 0.99%); medium carbon steel (0.30 – 0.59%); low carbon steel (0.16 – 0.29%); mild carbon steel (0.05 – 0.15%); Black steel pipe is not really a specification but rather a generic term used primarily by plumbers to distinguish regular steel pipe from galvanized steel pipe. Therefore, galvanized pipes are more expensive and more durable.

If the pipes are placed in highly corrosive conditions, they often last from 50 to 100 years. Black steel pipe is darker than galvanized pipe; it is flat black while galvanized pipe is silver and gray. There are two ways to eliminate the welding line: geometric seamlessly and physical seamlessly.

How to Identify whether a pipe is ERW or seamless? To identify if a pipe is ERW or seamless, simply read the stencil on the side of the pipe. If it is ASTM A53, Type S means seamless; Type F is furnace but welded; Type E is Electrical resist welded.

It is the easiest way to identify whether a pipe is ERW or seamless. Hollow Structural Sections, especially RHS steel is commonly used in welded steel frames while SHS and CHS are more often used in columns. ASTM’s steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them.

It is also weldable and can be used in structural applications, although ASTM A500 tube, which is available in the same NPS sizes, is sometime preferred. A106 is a similar pipe in chemical composition but is intended for high temperature service (up to 750 degree F). It is a seamless pipe. NPS – ‘Nominal Pipe Size’ and DN – ‘Diametre Nominal’ – The size of pipes, fittings, flanges and valves are often given in inches as NPS – Nominal Pipe Size, or in metric units as DN – ‘Diametre Nominal’

Pipe Formulas – Pipe and Tube Equations – moment of inertia, section modulus, traverse metal area, external pipe surface and traverse internal area – imperial units.

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